Friday, February 6, 2015

DISASTER PRECURSORS: Omen – The Latest Incidents Of Strange Animal Behavior, Mass Animal Die-Offs, Appearance Of Rare Creatures And Warnings From Mother Nature!

February 6, 2015 - EARTH - The following constitutes the latest reports of unusual and symbolic animal behavior, mass die-offs, beaching and stranding of mammals, and the appearance of rare creatures.


Dead Humpback whale found on Corolla beach, North Carolina

A 29-foot female juvenile humpack whale was found near the Lighthouse Road beach access in Corolla, N.C. 
© Karen Clark | Outer Banks Center for Wildlife Education


Scientists today examined a dead female humpback whale that washed ashore Tuesday afternoon.

The juvenile was found near the Lighthouse Road beach access in Corolla with entanglement scars from fishing nets.

The whale, which was about 30 feet long and weighed 25,000 pounds, otherwise appeared healthy and had recently eaten menhaden, said William McLellan, the North Carolina State Stranding Coordinator.






Whale strandings -- especially this time of year -- are not uncommon and happen frequently on the Outer Banks, more so than anywhere else on the East Coast, he said. There have been 100 whale strandings in 15 years, he said.

Humpback whales are an endangered species.

Scientists collected the head and tissue samples to find out how it died. They will also examine whether it was affected by cetacean morbillivirus -- which affects the lungs and brain -- suspected of killing dozens of dolphins in Virginia and North Carolina in 2013. - Hampton Roads.


Elephant kills three people in West Bengal, India

Charging Asian elephants.  © Jagdeep Rajput

Three people were killed and another injured Friday after they were attacked by an elephant in West Bengal's Jalpaiguri district, a forest official said.

The incident happened when the tusker strayed into the Kathambari village under the under the Apalchand range of Baikunthapur forest division.

"The elephant had strayed into the village and attacked people killing three of them and injuring another. While one person was killed on the spot, two others succumbed to their injuries in a hospital," Divisional Forest Officer (Baikunthapur) P.R. Pradhan told IANS.

The victims have been identified as Rabin Orao, Surajit Katham and Benoy De Sarkar.

Forest officials later managed to push the animal back into the jungle.

Locals staged a demonstration outside the forest official office seeking compensation for the dead. - Zee News.


Mass die-off of hundreds of pigeons alarm biologists in California


California's only native pigeon is the band-tailed pigeon, which spends springs and summer in the Bay Area and other parts of Northern California.
© Krysta Rogers

An alarming increase in the number of dead and dying band-tailed pigeons along the California coast has prompted wildlife biologists to ask the public for help documenting the apparent decline of the only native pigeon left in the state.

At least 1,000 of the pigeons, which winter in Central and Southern California, have been found dead in Santa Clara and Santa Barbara counties since December, the apparent victims of a parasite spread by the common rock pigeon, said Krysta Rogers, an environmental scientist with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.

The sudden increase in mortality is disturbing, Rogers said, because the closest living relative to the extinct passenger pigeon has been struggling for decades to recover from rampant hunting, habitat loss and other environmental problems.

"The potential death of a thousand pigeons is very concerning, especially since they have a relatively low reproductive rate. A pair produces about one chick per year," Rogers said. "When there is really high mortality like this, it can take the population years to recover. In addition to that, these mortality events with band-tailed pigeons have been reported with increasing frequency over the past 10 years."

Band-tailed pigeons are the West Coast version of the passenger pigeon, which was once the most abundant bird in North America until it was hunted to extinction. Millions of band-tailed pigeons used to inhabit California, but they too were hunted for food throughout the 19th century, and much of their habitat was destroyed. They were eventually protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, which was passed largely out of guilt over the wholesale slaughter of many bird species, including the killing off of the passenger pigeon.

Band-tailed pigeons, which are not listed as endangered, prefer redwood and pine forests in higher elevations along the Central Coast and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges. The pigeons spend their winters in oak and conifer forests between the Bay Area, Santa Barbara County and the San Bernardino Mountains before migrating in late winter or early spring to the northernmost regions of Northern California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

About 500 dead band-tailed pigeons have been found over the past two months in the Saratoga and Los Gatos areas of Santa Clara County. An additional 500 carcasses were found in the Solvang, Los Olivos and Santa Ynez areas of Santa Barbara County. The state Department of Fish and Wildlife Investigations Laboratory determined the cause of death to be avian trichomonosis or, more specifically, Trichomonas gallinae.

It is believed that non-native rock pigeons, the species commonly seen in urban areas, including San Francisco, are spreading the parasite. Rock pigeons were introduced to North America from Europe.

"Researchers believe that this trichomonosis parasite evolved with these rock pigeons in Europe, and they are immune to it but can carry it," Rogers said. "Right now, it's really hard to estimate mortality because the reports I am getting are all in locations where people live. So if there are deaths in remote locations,we're not getting reports. That's the challenging thing about this."

The parasite was first reported in band-tailed pigeons in the 1940s, but Rogers said it has become more common over the past 10 years. It lives in the mouth and throat of infected birds, causing lesions in the mouth or esophagus that eventually block the passage of food. Infected birds die from starvation or suffocation.

"Band-tailed pigeons are highly susceptible to it," she said. "When band-tailed pigeons get infected by it, they die."

Rogers is researching the disease to determine exactly how it is being spread, whether from direct contact or whether other species are also carriers. It is believed that water sources, like bird feeders and stagnant pools, may play a role. She said the death toll from the parasite seems to be worse during dry winters.

"These events seem to be more common in winters with less precipitation, so I do suspect there is some weather component in these mortality events," Rogers said. "When you have large flocks and there is a disease like this circulating, and you have stagnant pools and puddles and not much flowing water, the parasite can become more concentrated in that small amount of water and the disease is going to spread more easily."

Rogers urged residents to be on the lookout for band-tailed pigeons this winter and to report sick or dead birds.

"It's very complex, but that's part of the research, to test these ideas out and get some real proof that these things are happening," Rogers said. "My job is to determine whether these mortality events are contributing to the decline, why they occur and how many birds die when they do occur."  - San Francisco Chronicle.


1.07 MILLION geese killed (more than half of geese population) due to avian flu in Taiwan, China

A total of 674 poultry farms around Taiwan have been hit by avian influenza as of 3 February since the outbreak began in mid-January, according to the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine's latest update on the epidemic.

Focus Taiwan
reports that the farms confirmed as having been affected by bird flu were among 701 goose, duck and chicken farms that have experienced suspicious animal deaths and have been tested for bird flu inflection.

Though the 701 poultry farms that have been tested and the 4.29 million birds they raised account for only a small percentage of Taiwan's overall poultry industry, the outbreak has dealt a serious blow to the country's goose farmers.

According to the Council of Agriculture, there were 103 million chicken, geese and ducks raised in Taiwan in the fourth quarter of 2014.

But of the 2.3 million land and water fowl culled to date at 602 farms to prevent the bird flu outbreak from spreading, 1.07 million of them have been geese, the report said, accounting for more than half of the two million geese raised in the country.

The infected farms have been located throughout western Taiwan, spanning Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli counties in the north, Changhua, Yunlin and Nantou counties in central Taiwan, and Chiayi and Pingtung counties and the Tainan and Kaohsiung metropolitan areas in the south, according to Focus Taiwan.

The only poultry farm in eastern Taiwan hit by the bird flu outbreak has been a chicken farm in Taitung County, the bureau said, noting that quarantine measures have been tightened to prevent the flu from spreading. - The Poultry Site.


Mom and two daughters attacked by family dog in McKinney, Texas

A mother and her two daughters were taken to the hospital after being attacked by their own pit bull Thursday evening in McKinney.

The dog turned on the family just before 6 p.m. inside their home in the 3000 block of Kingsbury Drive, according to a McKinney police spokesperson.

One of the girls was attacked, but managed to escape the home with her sister.

One neighbor said she heard screams and saw the younger of the two girls bleeding in front of the home, with serious injuries to her lower legs.

Another neighbor was helping to apply pressure to her wounds.

The dog was still attacking the mother inside the home when officers arrived. Police said at least one officer shot and killed the dog to prevent further harm.

WATCH: Mother, daughters attacked by their dog.


The three were taken to Medical Center of McKinney for treatment. The severity of the injuries was not released, but a family friend said they are expected to be okay.

"They were also just completely in shock and terrified and there was quite a bit of blood," said neighbor Catherine Williams. "My daughter didn't sleep last night. Everyone was really shaken in the neighborhood, just really worried about them and praying for them."

Neighbors told News 8 that a second dog was found in the victims' home and taken by animal control.

Animal control and McKinney police were investigating the incident. - WFAA.


20,000 Chickens killed due to avian flu in Plateau State, Nigeria

Dead birds are gathered to be burnt in Kano, Nigeria in a bid to contain the spread of bird flu.( Pius Utomi Ekpei / AFP-Getty Images)

The Plateau State government has confirmed that cases of avian influenza, aka bird flu, have been recorded in the state.

The disclosure was made on Wednesday, February 4, by the Chief Veterinary Officer for the state, Doris Bitrus.

“Seven poultry have been destroyed and more than 20,000 birds killed following the outbreak of the dreaded diseases,”
Bitrus said in an interview with the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Jos.

“We have also ensured that that the carcasses and wastes are adequately disposed of,”
she added.
Bitrus also said that the state had implemented the necessary measures to contain the disease and keep it from spreading. - Pulse.


Hundreds of dead fish appear, 'causing concern' in the Black river in Argentina

This morning Centener fish found floating dead on the shore of the Black River. Concerned about the situation, neighbors alerted the community through the social network Facebook and then gained significant impact, among which stressed that "it is not the first time they appear dead fish in there."



Significantly, it is a place where many people usually have fished and where many children choose to swim during hot summer days.


Given this fact, the neighbors alerted and asked the relevant authorities to use the site and verify the dangerousness of the situation and alert the community if the case of water pollution. - Diario Norte.




ICE AGE NOW: Global Cooling Trend Continues Relentlessly - Cold Snap Brings Heavy Snowfall And Mass Travel Disruptions To Italy; Heavy Snowfall Traps Over 200 Motorists In Spain; Chicago Experiences 10th Snowiest Winter On Record!

February 6, 2015 - EARTH - Evidence continues to accumulate that the Earth is now in a period of global cooling.


Chicago experiences 10th snowiest winter on record

A man clears snow from the sidewalk in front of an apartment building on February 2, 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. Snow began falling in the city Sunday morning
and did not stop until early Monday morning, leaving behind more than 19 inches. It was the fifth largest snowfall in the city’s history.
© Scott Olson/Getty Images
Not only was this weekend's blizzard the 5th largest snowstorm in the city's history, it also made the past week the 8th snowiest week on record for Chicago.

According to the National Weather Service, a total of 21.3 inches of snow was measured at O'Hare from Jan. 29 through Feb. 4. Virtually all of that - 19.3 inches - came during the snowstorm that started Saturday night and ended Monday morning.

Also thanks to the blizzard, this February is already the 10th snowiest on record in Chicago, with more than three weeks left until the end of the month.

With 36.7 inches of snow so far this winter in Chicago, we've already reached the normal snowfall for the entire average winter season in Chicago, meaning - despite no measurable snow in December - Chicago is virtually assured of having above normal snowfall this winter.

There will be a nice break from the snow during the next couple days. CBS 2 Meteorologist Megan Glaros reports no precipitation is expected for the next 24 to 48 hours.


1/29-2/4/15 is 8th snowiest week on record in #Chicago! This Feb already 10th snowiest on record http://1.usa.gov/1EHh6Zt 

While Thursday is the first time in the past eight days that Chicago won't get any snow, temperatures plunged below zero overnight.

Shortly before 8 a.m., the temperature dipped to 2 below zero at O'Hare International Airport, with a wind chill of 10 below.

It was even colder in some outlying suburbs, Thursday morning, with temperatures of as low as 14 below in Kankakee, and 16 below in Aurora.

The frigid conditions won't last long though. While Thursday's high will be only about 16 degrees, temperatures will return closer to normal the next several days, with a high of 32 on Friday, 35 on Saturday, and 32 on Sunday. Next week will start about the same, with highs in the upper 20s or lower 30s through Wednesday. - CBS.


Cold snap brings heavy snowfall to Italy

© MeteoWeb

Heavy snow fell across northern and central Italy on Thursday, causing travel problems and some schools to close, while the south was hit by floods and landslides.


Snowfall blanketing parts of Italy hampered travel plans, causing trains in north-west Piedmont and Liguria to be cancelled. So far 35 trains have been affected, including those on the Genoa and Turin lines, Tgcom24 reported.

The cold snap has, however, been good news for skiers, with up to 60cm of snow falling in the mountainous Cuneo province by the French border. Schools in the area have been closed for the rest of the week, MeteoWeb said.

Drivers were also facing difficulty, with snow on Italy's lengthy A1 road which links Milan and Naples. The heaviest snowfall on the road was reported between Bologna and Florence, with sections closed to heavy vehicles.

Venice has also not escaped from bad weather, with high water reaching 110cm in the canal city. Trieste, also in the north-east, was suffering from sleet and winds of 112km/h, Tgcom24 said.

Further south a rain storm hit the Italian capital overnight, with firefighters being called in to save drivers trapped by flooded streets.

Landslides have also been reported around Rome, with one north of the city prompting a train without passengers to derail at Manziana station. - The Local.


Heavy snowfall traps over 200 motorists in Spain

Some people could be stranded for days

Spanish emergency services have rescued at least 220 people trapped by snow on roads in northern Spain.


Hundreds of cars were stuck for up to 17 hours overnight on roads between Cantabria and the province of Palencia.

Local media report temperatures of -15C (5F) and up 40cm (1.3ft) of snow.

Around 100 British expats and tourists were among those trapped. Spanish police rescued several stranded in their vehicles shortly after arrival in Santander by ferry from Portsmouth.

Many had come to Spain hoping for a warm-weather holiday, but ended up having to spend the night in the sports hall of a local school and the dining room of a hotel.

The country is in the middle of a cold spell that is expected to worsen over the next three days, with cold weather alerts issued for 20 provinces.

WATCH: British tourists trapped in snow in northern Spain.





Spain's national weather service said in a statement that the unusually cold temperatures would last until next Tuesday.

The BBC's Tom Burridge in Madrid says that a large area of central Spain has seen an unusually high amount of snowfall in recent days.

One British woman, Jackie Elford of Margate, told the BBC she was driving to Marbella with her husband Roger when they were caught in heavy snow along with dozens of other motorists.

They were rescued at 03:30 (02:30 GMT) on Thursday, and spent the night on the floor of a hotel dining room in the village of Reinosa as there were no rooms available.

The couple have managed to book a room in the same hotel for Thursday night, but face postponing their journey south by one more day as the inclement conditions persist.

Abandoned cars and overturned lorries have piled up on main roads near Santander.

Spanish police said that dozens of military vehicles and snow ploughs are being used to clear the area.

Local media said that many schools in northern Spain had been closed and that there had been numerous power cuts.

El Pais newspaper reports that at least four towns in the region of Cantabria were still without power on Thursday.

Meanwhile, in Catalonia, winds of over 120km/h (75mph) have disrupted railway services.

Snowfall has also closed roads as far south as in Andalucia.

The freezing conditions are set to continue for several days, with the coldest temperatures expected on Saturday and Sunday, warned the national weather service.
- BBC.



GLOBAL ECONOMIC MELTDOWN: Precursors To A Global Financial Collapse - World Record Debt Of $199 TRILLION Could Drag Economies Into Another Crisis!

Reuters/Yves Herman

February 6, 2015 - GLOBAL ECONOMY
- Global debt has soared by $57 trillion since the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2007, with the debt to GDP ratio jumping to 400 percent in Japan. This raises questions about financial stability and poses a threat of another crisis.

“After the 2008 financial crisis and the longest and deepest global recession since World War II, it was widely expected that the world’s economies would deleverage. It has not happened. Instead, debt continues to grow in nearly all countries, in both absolute terms and relative to GDP. This creates fresh risks in some countries and limits growth prospects in many,”
according to new researchcarried out by consultants McKinsey in 47 countries.

The amount of world debt reached $199 trillion at the end of 2014, with the growth rate exceeding the pace of global economic expansion and the debt to GDP ratio increased from 269 to 286 percent.

“Higher levels of debt pose questions about financial stability and whether some countries face the risk of a crisis.”


Source: Debt and (not much) deleveraging, McKinsey Global Institute

“We conclude that, absent additional steps and new approaches, business leaders should expect that debt will be a drag on GDP growth and continue to create volatility and fragility in financial markets,”the McKinsey report says.

Deleveraging remains limited to a handful of sectors in some countries. The only countries that managed to cut their debt were Argentina, Romania, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Israel.

Geographically, Ireland was the country where the debt to GDP ratio saw a record increase – of 172 percent. The ratio in Japan added 64 percent and remains the world’s highest at 400 percent. In Russia, the debt to GDP ratio saw a moderate growth by 19 percent, remaining relatively low at 65 percent.


Source: Debt and (not much) deleveraging, McKinsey Global Institute

China is one of the key concerns as debt there has skyrocketed almost quadrupling, from $7.4 trillion in 2007 to $28.2 trillion in mid-2014. The debt-to-GDP ratio reached 282 percent comparing to 269 percent of the US. Although total Chinese debt is still manageable, experts are concerned with worrisome levels of debt in the property sector and the rapid expansion of shadow banking.

“China’s total debt, as a percentage of GDP, now exceeds that of the United States.”


Falling debt in the financial sector and a retreat in many of the riskiest forms of shadow banking are the only bright spots in the report. But the overall global debt burden “has reached new levels despite the pain of the financial crisis,” the report said.

Households across the world have also significantly increased their debt, with their debt relative to income having decreased in only five advanced economies - the United States, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Germany. In such developed countries as Australia, Canada, Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands, as well as Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand, the debt exceeds the pre-crisis level.

To avoid another crisis, the governments might take recourse to new ways of reducing the national debt such as larger sales of assets, non-recurrent wealth taxes and more effective programs of debt restructuring, the report said.

“Policy makers will need to consider a full range of responses to reduce debt as well as innovations to make debt less risky and make the impact of a future crisis less catastrophic.”
- RT.




ICE AGE NOW: Mini-Ice Age 2015-2035 - Boston And British Columbia Smash Snow Records! UPDATE: January 2015 Snow And Cold Temperature Records!



February 6, 2015 - EARTH
- In the following video, YouTube channel Adapt 2030 continues their examination of Earth changes, solar minimum and the current global cooling cycle.


 WATCH: Boston and British Columbia Smash Snow Records.




Boston
https://twitter.com/hashtag/Boston?sr...
http://iceagenow.info/2015/01/feet-sn...
https://twitter.com/NWSBoston Look for Jan 28th
https://twitter.com/hashtag/Snowfalls...
http://www.accuweather.com/en/weather...
http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ss...

Record snow & cold British Columbia
http://www.theweathernetwork.com/news...
http://www.am1150.ca/News/Kelowna/201...

Canada
http://www.theweathernetwork.com/news...
http://www.theweathernetwork.com/news...

Global temperature Anomalies http://wattsupwiththat.com/2015/02/04...


WATCH: January 2015 Snow and Cold Temperature Records.


Too much snow closes resorts in France
http://france3-regions.blog.francetvi...

Tinos Greece
http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showth...
http://robinwestenra.blogspot.tw/2015...
https://www.facebook.com/permalink.ph...
http://en.enikos.gr/society/21990,Aeg...

UAE first time ever couple with last weeks hailstorm
http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/200...

LA California Record Cold: There was a record low recorded at Los Angeles International Airport, according to Stuart Seto, a weather specialist with the National Weather Service. The temperature at LAX dropped to 36 degrees, breaking the Jan. 1 record of 38 set in 1972. http://ktla.com/2015/01/01/southern-c...
NOAA Satellite Temperature maps of event http://www.cnrfc.noaa.gov/tempForecas...
California Snow Images in video https://www.youtube.com/user/BlueMoon...

Ice Pancakes St. Joseph's Lighthouse, Michigan, January 2015
http://doingadvancework.blogspot.tw/2...
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/artic...
Ice Pancakes are usually seen in the southern hemisphere, but this is the second time this winter they have appeared. First in the UK in December now in USA in January.

Record cold and snow Las Vegas Video removed http://www.aol.com/article/2014/12/30...

Record snow Oklahoma City 27 Dec 2014 – “Oklahoma City’s one-day snow fall record of 1.3 inches set in 1968 was smashed with 3.5 inches of snowfall on Saturday,” says this article in the Duncan Banner.
Just across the Red River in Texas, Wichita Falls saw 2 inches of snow.
“According to the National Weather Services, the oldest records show there has never been snow on Dec. 27 in Wichita Falls.” (italics added)
(Two inches of snow may not sound like much, but compared to “never,” it’s a definite record.)
http://www.duncanbanner.com/news/reco...


- Adapt 2030.



PLANETARY TREMORS: Strong 4.2 Magnitude Earthquake Rattles Cherokee, Oklahoma - Large Cracks Found In Alfalfa County Courthouse!

USGS earthquake location.

February 6, 2015 - OKLAHOMA, UNITED STATES
- A 4.2 magnitude earthquake near Cherokee has caused damage at Alfalfa County Courthouse.

Several walls on the third floor of the building have cracked, said Amanda Kutz, the office manager at the Alfalfa County Sheriff’s Office.

“And where the ceiling up there meets the wall, it’s been cracked completely right there in one area,” she said. “One of the ladies upstairs said that she thought that she felt pieces of the ceiling shaking down on her head.”


A 4.2 magnitude earthquake Thursday knocked this Oklahoma Centennial plate off the wall at Alfalfa County Courthouse,  shattering it. The quake
also caused cracks in several walls. (Photo by DESIREE BULLER/Cherokee Messenger and Republican)

U.S. Geological Survey reported the quake, at 9:08 a.m. Thursday, was centered 5 miles east-northeast of Cherokee and 35 miles northwest of Enid. It was 3.1 miles deep.

A 2.7 magnitude earthquake occurred a few minutes later, at 9:19 a.m. It was centered 5.6 miles northeast of Cherokee and was 3.5 miles deep.

A third quake occurred near Cherokee at 4:24 p.m. The 3.1 magnitude temblor was centered 6 miles northeast of Cherokee and 36 miles northwest of Enid. It was 5.6 miles deep.


USGS shakemap intensity.

A 3.8 magnitude temblor was recorded at 1:06 a.m., 5 miles east-southeast of Helena and 19 miles west-northwest of Enid. It was 3.7 miles deep.

A 3.1 magnitude quake occurred at 4:48 p.m. 6 miles south of Caldwell, Kan., and 40 miles north-northeast of Enid. It was 1.9 miles deep.

A 2.8 magnitude earthquake took place at 12:44 a.m. 8 miles west of Helena and 32 miles west-northwest of Enid. It was 4.3 miles deep. - Enid News.



Tectonic Summary - Earthquakes in the Stable Continental Region



Natural Occurring Earthquake Activity

Most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains has infrequent earthquakes. Here and there earthquakes are more numerous, for example in the New Madrid seismic zone centered on southeastern Missouri, in the Charlevoix-Kamouraska seismic zone of eastern Quebec, in New England, in the New York - Philadelphia - Wilmington urban corridor, and elsewhere. However, most of the enormous region from the Rockies to the Atlantic can go years without an earthquake large enough to be felt, and several U.S. states have never reported a damaging earthquake.

Earthquakes east of the Rocky Mountains, although less frequent than in the West, are typically felt over a much broader region than earthquakes of similar magnitude in the west. East of the Rockies, an earthquake can be felt over an area more than ten times larger than a similar magnitude earthquake on the west coast. It would not be unusual for a magnitude 4.0 earthquake in eastern or central North America to be felt by a significant percentage of the population in many communities more than 100 km (60 mi) from its source. A magnitude 5.5 earthquake in eastern or central North America might be felt by much of the population out to more than 500 km (300 mi) from its source. Earthquakes east of the Rockies that are centered in populated areas and large enough to cause damage are, similarly, likely to cause damage out to greater distances than earthquakes of the same magnitude centered in western North America.

Most earthquakes in North America east of the Rockies occur as faulting within bedrock, usually miles deep. Few earthquakes east of the Rockies, however, have been definitely linked to mapped geologic faults, in contrast to the situation at plate boundaries such as California's San Andreas fault system, where scientists can commonly use geologic evidence to identify a fault that has produced a large earthquake and that is likely to produce large future earthquakes. Scientists who study eastern and central North America earthquakes often work from the hypothesis that modern earthquakes occur as the result of slip on preexisting faults that were formed in earlier geologic eras and that have been reactivated under the current stress conditions. The bedrock of Eastern North America is, however, laced with faults that were active in earlier geologic eras, and few of these faults are known to have been active in the current geologic era. In most areas east of the Rockies, the likelihood of future damaging earthquakes is currently estimated from the frequencies and sizes of instrumentally recorded earthquakes or earthquakes documented in historical records.

Induced Seismicity

As is the case elsewhere in the world, there is evidence that some central and eastern North America earthquakes have been triggered or caused by human activities that have altered the stress conditions in earth's crust sufficiently to induce faulting. Activities that have induced felt earthquakes in some geologic environments have included impoundment of water behind dams, injection of fluid into the earth's crust, extraction of fluid or gas, and removal of rock in mining or quarrying operations. In much of eastern and central North America, the number of earthquakes suspected of having been induced is much smaller than the number of natural earthquakes, but in some regions, such as the south-central states of the U.S., a significant majority of recent earthquakes are thought by many seismologists to have been human-induced.

Even within areas with many human-induced earthquakes, however, the activity that seems to induce seismicity at one location may be taking place at many other locations without inducing felt earthquakes. In addition, regions with frequent induced earthquakes may also be subject to damaging earthquakes that would have occurred independently of human activity. Making a strong scientific case for a causative link between a particular human activity and a particular sequence of earthquakes typically involves special studies devoted specifically to the question. Such investigations usually address the process by which the suspected triggering activity might have significantly altered stresses in the bedrock at the earthquake source, and they commonly address the ways in which the characteristics of the suspected human-triggered earthquakes differ from the characteristics of natural earthquakes in the region.

Impact Text

Felt (IV) at Cherokee; (III) at Alva, Enid and Tulsa. Also felt (III) at Andover, Derby, Hutchison, McConnell AFB and Wichita; (II) at Newton, Kansas. Felt at Canadian, Texas. Felt widely along the central Oklahoma-Kansas border region.
- USGS.