Friday, April 15, 2011

SOLAR ACTIVITY: NASA - The Sun Is Waking Up With A Bang?!


In the latest report from its Science News website, NASA is indicating that solar activity is heating up and that the Sun is waking up with a bang. As we near solar maximum, they expect that the Sun will undergo a period of increased magnetic and sunspot activity.

Back in 2008, the solar cycle plunged into the deepest minimum in nearly a century. Sunspots all but vanished, solar flares subsided, and the sun was eerily quiet. "Ever since, we've been waiting for solar activity to pick up," says Richard Fisher, head of the Heliophysics Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington DC. "It's been three long years." Quiet spells on the sun are nothing new. They come along every 11 years or so—it's a natural part of the solar cycle. This particular solar minimum, however, was lasting longer than usual, prompting some researchers to wonder if it would ever end. News flash: The pot is starting to boil. "Finally," says Fisher, "we are beginning to see some action." As 2011 unfolds, sunspots have returned and they are crackling with activity. On February 15th and again on March 9th, Earth orbiting satellites detected a pair of "X-class" solar flares--the most powerful kind of x-ray flare. The last such eruption occurred back in December 2006. Another eruption on March 7th hurled a billion-ton cloud of plasma away from the sun at five million mph (2200 km/s). The rapidly expanding cloud wasn't aimed directly at Earth, but it did deliver a glancing blow to our planet's magnetic field. The off-center impact on March 10th was enough to send Northern Lights spilling over the Canadian border into US states such as Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan.

After years of lying low, sunspot counts are on the rise again.
"That was the fastest coronal mass ejection in almost six years," says Angelos Vourlidas of the Naval Research Lab in Washington DC. "It reminds me of a similar series of events back in Nov. 1997 that kicked off Solar Cycle 23, the solar cycle before this one. To me," says Vourlidas, "this marks the beginning of Solar Cycle 24." The slow build-up to this moment is more than just "the watched pot failing to boil," says Ron Turner, a space weather analyst at Analytic Services, Inc. "It really has been historically slow." There have been 24 numbered solar cycles since researchers started keeping track of them in the mid-18th century. In an article just accepted for publication by the Space Weather Journal, Turner shows that, in all that time, only four cycles have started more slowly than this one. "Three of them were in the Dalton Minimum, a period of depressed solar activity in the early 19th century. The fourth was Cycle #1 itself, around 1755, also a relatively low solar cycle," he says. In his study, Turner used sunspots as the key metric of solar activity. Folding in the recent spate of sunspots does not substantially alter his conclusion: "Solar Cycle 24 is a slow starter," he says. - NASA.
Here are the visuals from NASA's Science Casts of this new burst of solar flares and Northern Lights, as the Sun wakes up from a three-year slumber:




Spaceweather is indicating that a solar wind stream flowing from the indicated coronal hole should reach Earth sometime between April 18th and 20th and that Sunspot 1190 has a beta-gamma magnetic field that harbors energy for Earth-directed M-class flares. It is also reporting that the April Auroras that was seen in Siberia, came as a result of the tail end of a geomagnetic storm sparked by solar wind hitting Earth's magnetic field on April 12th. "The event was so strong, it sent Northern Lights spilling over the Canadian border into US states such as Michigan and Minnesota. It could happen again on April 18-20 when another solar wind stream is expected to reach our planet."
Expect more geological upheavals as a result of this.


GEOLOGICAL UPHEAVAL: Role Reversal - Scientists Suggests That Tectonic Plates Shift Will Eventually Move Europe Below Africa?!


According to a  recent report from Richard Black, the BBC's Environmental Correspondent, a major tectonic plate subduction event between the continents of Europe and Africa is in process and will eventually result in a role reversal, where Europe will move below Africa. It is believed that this process is happening due to the convergent boundaries of the African and Eurasian plates, where one tectonic plate moves under the other tectonic plate, ultimately sinking into the Earth's mantle.

Europe may be starting to burrow its way under Africa, geologists suggest. The continents are converging; and for many millions of years, the northern edge of the African tectonic plate has descended under Europe. But this process has stalled; and at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) meeting last week, scientists said we may be seeing Europe taking a turn. If they are correct, this would signal the start of a new subduction zone - a rare event, scientifically fascinating. Beneath the Mediterranean Sea, the cold, dense rock at the extreme north of the African plate has virtually all sunk under the Eurasian plate on which Europe sits. But the African landmass is too light to follow suit and descend. "Africa won't sink, but Africa and Europe continue to move together; so where is this taken up?" asked Rinus Wortel from the University of Utrecht. "It looks possible that on the appropriate timescale, we are witnessing the beginning of subduction of Europe under Africa," he told BBC News. The Mediterranean Sea's geological structure and history are quite complex. The Utrecht group's analysis goes like this: The slow convergence - just a few centimetres per year - was obstructed partially by collision of the two plates further East, in Turkey, and then by the fact that the lightness of the African continent prevented further subduction. As a result, bits of the African plate that did subduct have broken off and are descending to the Earth's mantle. To fill this gap, bits of the Eurasian plate have been pulled southwards across the Mediterranean, such as the Balearic Islands, Corsica and Sardinia. The same thing is happening with Crete. And computer modelling suggests the end product of all this could be the initiation of subduction in the opposite direction from the past. Additional evidence comes from observations of earthquakes. "We see what motion occurs in the earthquakes, and we see that the fault planes dip towards the South," said Professor Wortel. - BBC.
In a recent article, I highlighted a report from Alex Bojanowski of Spiegel Online, illustrating that the continent of Africa is tearing apart. Using the accumulated evidence from geological and satellite data, the report points to the current convulsion in Africa, that shows that the continent is in a state of tremendous change and splitting at its core as violent seismic activity continues.
Great rift developing in Africa.
The fissures began appearing years ago. But in recent months, seismic activity has accelerated in northeastern Africa as the continent breaks apart in slow motion. Researchers say that lava in the region is consistent with magma normally seen on the sea floor -- and that water will ultimately cover the desert... The earth is in upheaval in northeastern Africa, and the region is changing quickly. The desert floor is quaking and splitting open, volcanoes are boiling over, and seawaters are encroaching upon the land. Africa, researchers are certain, is splitting apart at a rate rarely seen in geology. The first fracture appeared millions of years ago, resulting in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The second fracture, stretching south from Ethiopia to Mozambique, is known as the Great Rift Valley, and it is lined with several volcanoes. Millions of years from now, it too will be filled with seawater. But in the Danakil Depression, in the northern part of the valley, the ocean could arrive much sooner. 
Violent Seismic Activity in Africa.
There, low, 25 meter (82 foot) hills are the only thing holding back the waters of the Red Sea. The land behind them has already dropped dozens of meters from previous levels and white salt deposits on the desert floor testify to past encroachments of the sea. But lava soon choked off its access. For now, no one can really say when the sea will finally flood the desert. But when it does, it could go quickly. "The hills could sink in a matter of days," Tim Wright, a fellow at the University of Leeds' School of Earth and Environment, said at a recent conference hosted by the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco... Oxford University's David Ferguson predicts a considerable increase in volcanic eruptions and earthquakes in the region over the next decade. They will, he says, "become of increasingly large magnitude."
Click HERE to look at the stunning gallery of images.

With a wide area of active volcanism and a fault system that extends throughout the African continent and into Europe, the possibility for this role reversal exist, especially since these active volcanoes sits atop a junction of divergent plates that are currently pulling each other apart from one another.


JAPAN: A Perpetual Deluge of Chaos - Japan Considering Moving the Capital from Tokyo, Radiation Soaring In Reactor 4, High Radioactivity Found in Fish and Vegetables & Fukushima Brace For More Quakes!


Consider the following stories coming of out of Japan, as the country continues to undergo a perpetual deluge of chaos. To illustrate the gravity of the situation, the Japanese government is considering moving the capital from Tokyo.
As powerful earthquakes continue to jolt Japan and radiation levels near Tokyo are rising, the Asian country's authorities are considering moving the capital to another city. The most probable location for a new capital are Osaka and Nagoya, according to ITAR-TASS. Both cities are located near international airports. The main conditions the new capital has to provide are a population over 50 000 and a sufficient capacity to accommodate the parliament, the government, the Emperor's residency and the foreign diplomatic missions. According to experts, should a 7.2 magnitude earthquake shake Tokyo, the casualties will be around 11 000, some 210 000 will be injured and the material damage will be worth about USD 1 B. - Sofia News Agency.
Speaking of radiation, the botched cooling system has send radiation soaring at Reactor 4 at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan emitted a new burst of radioactive material this week after a bungled cooling effort apparently affected spent atomic fuel in the site's No. 4 reactor cooling pond, the Associated Press reported. Workers were firing water into the pond from a distance in an effort to prevent the fuel from overheating and releasing radioactive contaminants, but fluid collecting in an adjacent flood control container triggered an incorrect warning that the pond had been filled. Personnel halted water transfers to the pool for a number of days in response to the warning, allowing heat and radiation levels to increase even though the fuel was thought to have remained submerged, Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency Deputy Director General Hidehiko Nishiyama said. Water spraying began again on Wednesday. The six-reactor plant was crippled by the 9.0-magnitude earthquake and devastating tsunami that hit Japan on March 11; the projected death toll of the events exceeds 26,000 people, though authorities have found the remains of only 11,250 individuals to date. A series of smaller tremors in recent days might have contributed to incorrect feedback from equipment at the facility, according to authorities. An uptick in radiation at the cooling pond indicates the fuel in storage there had been compromised, authorities said. Concentrations of iodine 131, cesium 134 and cesium 137 have increased in the pond, said Junichi Matsumoto, an executive for plant operator Tokyo Electric Power. - NTI.
Meanwhile, high radioactivity have been found in fish and in 11 different kinds of vegetables.
The health ministry has detected radioactivity above the legal limit in fish caught off Fukushima Prefecture and 11 kinds of vegetables grown in the prefecture. The ministry says it found 12,500 becquerels per kilogram, or 25 times the limit, of radioactive cesium in small fish called sand lances caught off Iwaki City, south of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant on Wednesday. It also discovered 12,000 becquerels, or 6 times the limit, of radioactive iodine in the fish. On April 7th, sand lances caught off the city were already found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium in excess of the limit. Sand lances caught off Ibaraki Prefecture, south of Fukushima, were also found to be polluted with the radioactive substance. The central government says sand lances are currently not being sold as fishing cooperatives in the 2 prefectures are not in operation. Radioactivity was also detected on 11 kinds of vegetables sampled in Fukushima on Monday. Authorities detected 1,960 becquerels per kilogram, or 4 times the legal limit, of cesium on Japanese parsley, known as Seri, grown in Soma City. On Wednesday, the government banned the shipment of some shiitake mushrooms grown outdoors in eastern Fukushima after detecting radioactivity above the legal limit. - NHK.

 

 If that is not enough, Fukushima plant workers are bracing for new aftershocks.
Swarms of aftershocks.
Workers at the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant are bracing for more powerful aftershocks while continuing their efforts to clear the compound of radioactive wastewater. Highly contaminated water has pooled inside turbine buildings and tunnels, hampering efforts to restore reactor cooling systems. The plant's operator, Tokyo Electric Power Company, transferred about 660 tons of wastewater from the Number 2 reactor tunnel to a turbine condenser on Wednesday. As a result, the water level in the tunnel dropped by 8 centimeters. But it was up again by 3 centimeters as of Thursday morning. The Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency says water being injected to cool the reactor may be leaking out. TEPCO also plans to transfer contaminated water to the plant's waste processing facility. But the facility has not yet been made leak-proof. The utility firm says it doesn't know when it can start removing water from reactors other than No. 2. On Thursday, workers continued to relocate emergency diesel generators to higher ground where they would be safe from aftershocks and tsunamis. The area around Fukushima Daiichi plant has been hit by a series of aftershocks since earlier this month. A tremor on Monday temporarily cut off external power supply to the plant. After the generators are moved to an area about 30 meters above sea level, they could be switched on by evacuating workers when a tsunami warning is issued. - NHK.
So far, there have been over a thousand aftershocks since the March 11 mega-earthquake and it is envisioned that it may continue for at least six months, increasing the risk of damage to a crippled nuclear plant at the center of the worst nuclear crisis since Chernobyl.

Have a look at the following video, that captured one of these aftershocks and its effects on the sidewalks in Japan.



Stay tuned. More anon.


Mystery: Symbols of an Alien Sky, Man-Made or Natural Phenomena - Giant UFO Seen Hovering Over Fukushima Nuclear Plant In Japan?!


Huge UFO over Fukushima Nuclear Plant. 
On September 27 2010, a group of seven former US Air Force Officers and along with researcher Robert Hastings disclosed declassified US Government documents about military witnesses of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) over America's nuclear sites. The event occurred at the National Press Club and was given prominence with a live broadcast on the CNN news network. They claimed that the United States and the United Kingdom covered up the incidents of unidentified flying objects (UFO) encounters.  

Captain Robert Salas, former USAF nuclear missile launch officer said that: "We’re talking about unidentified flying objects, as simple as that... They’re often known as UFOs, you could call them that... The U.S. Air Force is lying about the national security implications of unidentified aerial objects at nuclear bases and we can prove it..." Salas went on to detail a first-hand account of an event at the Malmsrom Air Force Base in Montana on March 16, 1967, "I was on duty when an object came over and hovered directly over the site. The missiles shut down – ten Minuteman [nuclear] missiles. And the same thing happened at another site a week later. There’s a strong interest in our missiles by these objects, wherever they come from. I personally think they’re not from planet Earth."

 

If we are to believe Salas, that these objects are not from here, is it possible then that aliens are visiting this planet specifically during times of catastrophic man-made or natural disasters? Can we conclude that there visitation is to possibly, intervene, just in case we are push to the brink of extinction, resulting from a cataclysmic event? We can only theorize, given the lack of any evidence as to what the true nature of these objects are. Lately we have been seeing elements of this phenomena manifest more often in our skies, especially during the Indonesian tsunami several years ago and in the recent earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in March of this year. Since the devastation in Japan, a nuclear meltdown has occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Plant with a high probability of global nuclear radiation fallout. In the following video clip, captured by a television news crew, a very large white object can be seen floating above the nuclear plant facility.



Is this an extraterrestrial craft? If Salas and the other retired military personnel are correct that nuclear missiles simultaneously and inextricably malfunctioned during the appearance of these objects over nuclear weapons site, are we about to see the same here, given that the Japanese government recently upgraded the nuclear crisis to the highest severity, Level 7, the same as the evaluation of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in the former Soviet Union? The implications for the world is critical, since Level 7 indicates that this is a major accident. If this escalates further, the fallout could be unprecedented. Could this also be the assessment of those piloting these crafts, if they are extraterrestrials?


EARTH CHANGES: Multi-Vortex Tornado Rips Through Oklahoma!


At least six people were killed overnight when a violent multi-vortex tornado ripped through America's midsection before heading east. Sadly, the victims included a toddler and a six-year-old, as well as extensive damage to several communities.
A powerful tornado that struck after dark killed at least six people in a small Oklahoma town, the Medical Examiner's Office confirmed. Emergency Management officials said the main highway through the area was not passable because of uprooted trees and overturned tractor trailer trucks. One resident of Tuska, located about 120 miles southeast of Oklahoma City, said it "felt like a bomb," The Associated Press reported. "Everything in my house looks like shambles," Jennifer Buffington, 36, said. She, her husband and seven children took refuge in a neighbor's storm cellar when the siren sounded. When the storm passed, the family spent the night in the First Baptist Church in Atoka. About two dozen people were treated for injuries, some serious, according to early reports. Authorities issued tornado warnings along a 100-mile area of southeastern Oklahoma as the storm moved along an east-northeastern path. Earlier, the same storm cell prompted tornado watches in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma. - CBN
Here are scenes from the passage of this weather system:






FRINGE: Symbolism of Convergence - Weak Points and Gravitational Singularities. Scientists Stunned by Giant Whirlpools in the Ocean?!


Several weeks ago, following the devastating mega-earthquake and resultant tsunami that hit off the coast of Japan, I highlighted the news about a giant whirlpool that was seen near Qarai City in Ibaraki Prefecture in northeastern Japan.

I wrote:

"A swirling vortex, that lasted for hours, sucking up everything in its path, including houses, ships, cars and farm buildings. According to Michio Kaku, the theoretical physicist, the whirlpool was caused by the sudden uplift of the Earth's crust, a rupture ranging for hundreds of miles that created colliding waves. He also believes that the crack in the Earth's crust, also caused the water to swirl into a vortex, descending and funneling like a drain."



In the article I also draw reference to the symbolism seen in the Fox television series Fringe:

"...in episode 8, entitled Entrada, of season three,... we see the combination of both of these theories of a man-made event and a convergence with a parallel world, being played out in the mythological archetypes narrative of the series.

Giant vortex seen in Fringe. 
In Fringe, an FBI team investigates mysteries associated with the unexplained and shocking occurrences associated with a breach of a parallel universe. An incursion that was created by one member of that team, Walter Bishop, the unorthodox archetypal mad scientist, who steals another boy from the alternate world to replace his dead son. A move that resulted in a chain reaction, causing various weather anomalies in the other world. In the episode, there is a scene in a busy Manhattan bar, where a television clip shows a giant vortex appearing in the middle of the East River. A vortex that created so much cataclysm chaos and havoc, that the authorities in this parallel world had to quarantine half of the city into a confined and secluded amber-like zone, where people are trapped inside. In addition to people, the incursion by Bishop also led to the deaths of animals and plant life.


I ask the following question: if we are to see the occult presentations and the subtextual narrative from Hollywood as part of a predictive programming or foreshadowing, is it right to infer that the vortex is an indication of this convergence between both worlds? Is it safe to assume that we are also witnessing one here on Earth, given the recent mass animal die-off across the planet and the whirlpool that was seen following the earthquake in Japan.


It should be noted that the word "entrada" is Spanish, and translates into English as any of the following words: entry, entrance, input, access, gateway, and portal. Is it possible that in addition to the man-made weather manipulation, some form of planetary object or dwarf star co-orbiting in a perpetual binary entanglement with our Sun, is having this cataclysmic effect on our planet as it makes it's entrance or entrada through the diffuse edges of the Oort clouds and into our Solar System, altering the Earth's gravity plane, magnetic field and eventually plunging us towards a geological pole shift and a possible mass extinction?"

Today, Anton Yevseyev of the Internet-based Russian newspaper, Pravda Online, published a report that provides additional material to this story and perhaps more evidence of the convergence of worlds and how our planet will continue to undergo geological upheavals as the weak points expand resulting in increased weather anomalies on the Earth. Or as they are referred to in the sci-fi series - gravitational singularities - the disintegration or dismantling of the known laws of the universe. 
US scientists discovered two giant whirlpools in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Guyana and Suriname. It became a sensational discovery because this part of the ocean has been studied thoroughly, and no one expected anything like that to appear in the area. More importantly, no one can understand where the whirlpools came from and what surprises they may bring to people. According to Brazilian scientist Guilherme Castellane, the two funnels are approximately 400 kilometers in diameter. Until now, these were not known on Earth. The funnels reportedly exert a strong influence on climate changes that have been registered during the recent years. "Funnels rotate clockwise. They are moving in the ocean like giant frisbees, two discs thrown into the air. Rotation occurs at a rate of one meter per second, the speed is sufficiently large compared to the speed of oceanic currents, on the border hoppers is a wave-step height of 40 cm," Castellane said. Even during the dry months, when the movement of oceanic currents and the flow of the Amazon River practically comes to a standstill, the funnels do not disappear. Therefore, the nature of the funnels does not depend on the flow of water, which one of the world's biggest rivers brings into the ocean. The natural phenomenon, which creates the whirlpools, is unknown to modern science. As a matter of fact, the phenomenon of giant whirlpools in the World Ocean is not new to science. In most cases, the craters, or rings, as scientists call them, are formed as a result of so-called vertical currents. The latter, in their turn, appear because of differences in water density which appear because of difference in temperatures of water layers. It is an open secret that cold water is thicker and heavier, so it goes down, underneath the masses of warm water, which is lighter. This is the reason why warm currents in the World Ocean always flow closer to the surface, whereas colder currents flow closer to the bottom. However, such movement of water may not always depend on the difference of temperatures of the water column. The difference in salinity can also be a reason. The mechanism here is the same. The density of saltier water is higher, this water is heavier and it moves closer to the bottom, pushing less saltier water up. This type of vertical fusion occurs frequently in the tropics because high temperatures lead to the evaporation of water from the surface. The salt does not evaporate with water, though. It stays in the ocean, which raises the level of salinity on the upper layer of water. This layer "drowns" and gives way to less saltier waters of the depth. Such vertical movements of water create giant whirlpools. The whirlpools, tens and even hundreds of kilometers in diameter, may last for months and even years, scientists say. The vertical movement of waters is a slow process, though. Why do those whirlpools exist for such a long time? This is partially the effect of Earth's magnetic field. In addition, marine water contains many charged ions, Na and Cl for example. To crown it all, water molecules are dipoles that are charged both positively and negatively. Any dipole starts spinning when moving in the magnetic field. An oceanic ring gathers millions of billions of molecules together. That is why the giant circle movement triggered by the vertical movement of water may last for months and years mechanically. Ions also give more power to the craters. Natrium and Chlorum are charged as well, and their movement in the magnetic field of the Earth also leads to the appearance of the circle movement. It is not ruled out that the reason for the appearance of the whirlpools off the coast of South America is the same as in other parts of the World Ocean. Scientists are currently studying the influence of those giant funnels on the climate of Latin America and Africa. Such whirlpools show influence on the atmosphere and form cyclonical air mass. They can also affect the movement of air mass formed in other places. For the time being, scientists do not know how the newly discovered water craters can affect the climate of Central and South Americas. 
Now, I am not a scientist, but according to my limited understanding, in a gravitational singularity, any form of mass can be compressed to a sufficient density, will inevitably collapse into a singularity or event horizon, such as at the beginning of the Big Bang, or the collapse of star or inside the centre of a black hole; where matter would flow into a space-time curvature, dimensions would shrink to zero, and density and gravity would become infinite. Are we witnessing something similar here, the annihilation of rationality, as worlds converge and our region of space is deformed and absorbed at the weak points of the conjunction?

If worlds, universes, planetary objects or stars are about to collide, then is it possible that this will ultimately lead to full contact with extraterrestrials or aliens, given that in Fringe, entities exist in the parallel universe, in similar planetary construct and properties as the prime universe. In a recent article in the Daily Mail, serious thought is given to this, when the question of the possibilities of aliens living on planets deep within black holes is raised to Professor Dokuchaev, from the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow.
Colonies of aliens living on planets within black holes may not be as far-fetched as it sounds. Some black holes have a complex internal structure that allows photons, particles and planets to orbit a central singularity, according to one scientist. A singularity is the region in a black hole when space and time become infinite. However, Professor Vyacheslav Dokuchaev claims that at the centre of certain black holes, and under the right conditions, is an area where the fabric of space and time exists once more. If a charged and rotating black hole is large enough, he said, it can weaken the tidal forces that are beyond the event horizon - the point where nothing, not even light, can escape a black hole's gravity. Scientists have long known that photons can survive in stable periodic orbits inside such charged black holes. However Professor Dokuchaev said that a black hole's inner Cauchy horizon - the area where dimensions switch back again - can also accommodate particles and even planets. These manage to exist without ever getting sucked all the way into the black hole and would derive light and heat from the orbiting protons and from the energy of the central singularity, he said... [he] speculates that these conditions could prove self-sufficient for alien life. He said: 'This internal black hole domain, hidden by two horizons from the whole external universe, is indeed a suitable place. 'Advanced civilisations may live safely inside the supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei without being visible from the outside.' - Daily Mail.
A silly and pointless piece of fantasy, a crazy theory, theoretical physics or real science? Certainly what we have been witnessing in terms of Earth changes, weather anomalies, seismic upheavals, and mass animal die-off needs to be explain and it is quite possible that we are really experiencing something similar to gravitational singularities as our world converges with another. The evidence is mounting and must be examine thoroughly and not dismissed as just as science fiction mumbo-jumbo. Only time will tell, but hopefully the empirical evidence from the scrutiny of the scientific method will reveal if the story arc from Fringe is predictive programming and foreshadowing, or not.